Xian folk opera Qin-qiang
Opera originated from the ancient Shaanxi, Gansu area of folk songs and dances, is the growth of growing up in Chang'an in ancient China's political, economic and cultural center, through the creation of generations of people formed gradually, because since the Zhou Dynasty, the Guanzhong area is called " Qin ", Shaanxi thus named, is quite ancient drama. Due to the Jujube clapper to strike musical festival, also known as "Bangzi" issue "Huang Huang" sound when due to bang attack Festival, commonly known as "Guang Guang child." Qing Li Yuan tune "rain village drama words," says: "Popular Communication Qian Qiu one hundred decorated outside the set, there are Shaanxi opera began to bang for the board, should the banjo, also tight slow, vulgar call Bangzi, Shu. that of strum. "the word" strum "meaning in our opera tune many of the past once Kunqu opera called" strum "pitched outside, but also once opera called" Luan ", and some drama to strum names, such as Wenzhou Luan, Luan Hebei, it is still used on more general term Bangzi system in Shaanxi first, mainly. Shaanxi "the formation of Qin, Han sophisticated, flourishing in the Tang, Yuan to complete, matured Yu Ming and Qing broadcasts, several Evolution, a splendid sight," is quite ancient drama, called the originator of Chinese opera, Wanli of the Ming Dynasty (AD 1573-1620) "bowl lotus" legend in the transcript, there is a marked with [West Shaanxi two guilty] vocals singing lyrics, and are supposing the Seven bodies, indicating that before, not only in opera or at the time form, and has been rumored to another place.
- Xi'an folk opera Qin-qiang -
As the opera repertoire are a lot of performance in the history of our country against aggression, Faithfulness struggle, the struggle against oppression or other major theme of the rich pleasures of life, because the opera music reflects the people of Shaanxi and Gansu upright hearty, generous well-defined character, and honest honest, industrious and brave folk, and early (possibly the first) to form a cavity board music system is more appropriate for the performance of all kinds of emotional changes; plus the opera artists gradually to create a more complete performance skills therefore Shaanxi wherever he went, he gave each play with different effects and directly affects the formation and development of various Bangzi opera, it became Bangzi originator. Qing emperors Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong three generations inflow of Beijing opera, but also directly affect the formation of Beijing Opera.
Shaanxi's heyday (1736-1795 years), during this period, many places in the country Shaanxi social classes in the Qianlong period, there were only to Xi'an Shaanxi thirty-six social classes, such as Paul character classes, Koto class, double-walled classes, Fairview classes.
Opera performances and simple, rough, bold and full of exaggeration. Shaanxi opera singing sound into joy, bitter tone, the former performance cheerful, joyful mood, which express grief, desolate emotion, singing music colorful, beautiful and moving. Play a musical instrument is the main Banhu, shrill and clear pronunciation. In the mask (e.g., n-three watts emperor's golden painted face, with the word to be), figure (e.g. horse trips, shelf pull, wood Tam Tam, Tam water, etc.), cosmetics (e.g., change the header comb head), effects (spit fire , Chuihuo, on stilts), and language phonological (Shaanxi fourteen rhyme, there Tone), etc., has its own unique style. "Roar singing" one of the top ten off in strange known. Role of business is divided into four students (older students, to be born, niche, larvae), six Dan (pantaloon, Zhengdan, Xiaodan, star, Wu Dan, Dan the media), the second net (big net, gross net), an ugly, of twelve three, also known as "thirteen nets."
Shaanxi popular because of its different regions, evolved into different genres: popular in the East region, said Weinan Shaanxi Road; popular in Western Guanzhong area known as West House Baoji opera; popular tune called Han Hanzhong area of Shaanxi; popular Xi'an area of Xian, said Luan (that is, Shaanxi Road). Brightest opera due to dialects and folk music influence over the country, in terms of voice, singing, music, etc., are slightly different. The past fifty years, east, west, south Shaanxi have developed a three-way, from the middle Shaanxi Instead, account for an absolute advantage throughout the Northwest. The act opera repertoire mostly based on the "nations", "Three Kingdoms", "Legend", "Yue said," and so tragic saga or story, there are myths, folk tales and various detective drama, plays more than 10,000 , the rich repertoire, ranking China's first of more than three operas, because of a long time span, scattered and lost a lot, and now according to statistics, only in about 4700, and that these plays is still being lost at an alarming rate to continue, if relevant departments can not effectively rescue people ages with the effort to create the world's precious cultural heritage will be separated by death.
Xi'an folk opera Qin-qiang performances
Qi opera libretto structure is made by the body, often with seven words and eleven words, the whole play is like a word Seven blank verse as neatly arranged. And the corresponding lyrics are tunes, opera board chamber music structure can be summarized as "rubato - Adagio - Presto on the center plate into the room - the end" of the process, namely a plate slightly faster tempo from slow to , fast, fast, slow gradually before the end of the final end of the process. According to this singer gradual pace, pushing layers to the story unfolds. So how to change the rhythm of the speed of it? This is opera singing "board road," the role. Belonging to the body plate opera drama changes, there twenty-six plate, Adagio, six plate strip, plate, two plates down, rolled plate or the like. Twenty-six board are two "six board", a six-clapper board to the stroke of six, are downbeat. Various other plate is twenty-six board will speed up, slow down, changes made free, turn panels. Such artists can be based on the story needs, the use of different rhythms to express the emotion.
There is also a feature of opera singing is the "color space", falsetto singing, pitch octave, the use of the characters in emotional agitation, the ups and downs of the plot development office. Which drawl must be classified as "security" rhyme, listen to down a full hearty, very expressive, but also significantly different from other local operas. In addition, there is joy opera singing tone and bitter tone of the points. As the name suggests, specializes in performance Huan sound cheerful, joyful mood; bitter tone suited to express grief, desolate emotions. These require just the right performers grasp of the script, to better assist Singing express emotion.
Opera accompaniment nothing stringed and wind. The use of musical instruments, the text field has banhu, two harp, erhu, flute, three-stringed lute, the pipa, dulcimer, suona, sea flute, pipes, large (trumpet), etc.; Wu Course violent drums, dry drums, percussions, sentence gong, small gong Ma gongs, cymbals, dumpling, opera and so on. Shaanxi is the most important instruments of course Banhu, pronounced tapering crisp, best embodies the characteristics of Shaanxi plate change.
The role of opera is divided into four students, six Dan, two net, a clown, a total of thirteen, also known as "thirteen nets." XuSheng concert, Tsing Yi, the older students, pantaloon, Baikal polygonal quartet, it is also called "sing strum." Some praise the opera is "complex sound Ji Chu, hot ear acid heart, people whom blood turmoil," It is for features opera performances. Opera performances and simple, rough, delicate, deeply, to love moving, full of exaggeration. After the Revolution, the establishment of yisushe Xi'an, Shaanxi special play, commitment to reform, to absorb nutrients such as opera opera, singing from Gao Kang excitement and become soft elegant, save both the original style, but also into a new style.
Xi'an folk opera Qin-qiang artistic characteristics
It features Gao Ang agitation, shortness Qiang Lie. Especially the painted face singing, screeching voice is loud roar, the locals call it "shattered head," outsiders jokingly: "sing opera, first stage should be strong, so as not toppled; the second is better than the actor's body, in order to avoid Leibing; third is the audience be bold, so frightened. "
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