Why is the central axis of Beijing city? Why is the East wall shrink it?
Why non-Beijing axis of the city north south east wall Why retracted it? Yuan planning Beijing (Dadu) 2 degrees off axis meridian dozen points, extension cords are directed on the yuan. Earth line measurement along the surface of the earth is assumed that the connection to the north and south poles perpendicular to the equatorial meridian is called, is the north south point, also called the warp.
Whether Beijing is north south axis of the city of Meridian it?
In the 1950s, Tiananmen Square under the bridge has been unearthed stone mouse. Urn in the Zhengyang, there are legends below or at the Meridian Gate flyover unearthed stone horses, murine son, Kenneth Ma, indicating ancient Chinese believed that Beijing axis is through the meridian in Beijing. Kangxi forty-eight years (1709) the Qing government was determined to be the axis of Beijing astronomical and geographical significance of the prime meridian, that is zero degrees longitude Earth. Unfortunately, there was no concept of intellectual property rights, did not declare the international recognized, was not adopted by the international community. Until 1884 by the International Conference decided to warp Observatory in Greenwich, England TRANSIT center of the prime meridian.
Many centuries have passed, until recent years, there is a surprising discovery. Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping researcher Yu Kui has been engaged in aerial remote sensing and ground mapping work. In 2004, he To take a panoramic aerial view of Beijing. He first came to Beijing Aerial view of the face of high-definition images, he suddenly found Beijing's central axis than the north south. This makes him extremely confused, but also to find Beijing satellite imagery, we found that Beijing axis is offset from the meridian. He looked at the various versions of the map of Beijing still confirms this. Develop rigor in scientific research work for many years in Kui Yu deliberately found a person in charge of China Map Publishing House. Kui told the person in charge of the birds, in fact, as early as the 1950s, Beijing's planning department found in the measurement of the deviation from the fact that the meridian axis of Beijing. Since the deviation could not be too much, the general public simply do not feel it, this thing has not released.
Later in Kui Yu and surveyors common axis of Beijing field mapping. They chose Yongdingmen Dianmen bell tower with three points of the central axis, and measure precisely calculated, Beijing discovery counterclockwise radial offset from the central axis 2 of ten minutes. According to this calculation, from the start point to the end bell tower Yongdingmen, it has deviated from the 300 meters.
In Kui Yong Lu Yu Yongding Gate specially in the north of the city downstairs, he made a "immediate" test. They set up a 2 m long pole in the center of Yong Lu. The following by the pole, the north along the centerline Yong Lu, a glue 6 meters long black tape, the representative point to the central axis. When the sun passes on transit Yongding Gate, the shadow pole is the Yongding Gate meridian. After the sun on transit time, is broadcast on the radio on, "12:00 GMT" when the number, plus the local time difference and the time difference obtained by correcting the day. As a result, does have a shadow angle between meridian and the axis of black tape, this angle is ten degrees 2 minutes!
This discovery shocked the academic world. Is Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties emperor's throne are 33 seats crooked yet? Why deviate from the radial axis? What went wrong? Moment talking about, different opinions.
One maintains that the measure was out of the question. Ancient technology is relatively low, resulting in a certain deviation using needle positioning method. But many people do not agree with that. They believe that ancient China had a long accurate measurement technology to achieve a very high level in terms of astronomy, calendar, mathematics. Tang's engineers had to accurately measure the radial deviation of the axis can not be measurement errors.
It was also suggested this hypothesis, it has been 700 years, whether in this 700 years, the Earth's natural state built by the changes in Beijing axis, such as precession, the pole shift, magnetic bias, and so on, causing the Beijing axis is offset from the meridian? Astronomers this also gives the answer: will not. Changes in the Earth's axis is extremely small, just 700 years time there will be no more changes 2-3 degrees. Calmly say there is a change, the earth is full, and why most of the off axis, separated by it are no changes in the axis of just over 270 kilometers yuan?
Some humanists trying to find out from a humanistic point of view. They believe that the planners and designers Liu Bingzhong Dadu Han Chinese, despite Hu Bilie's trust, but he ruled Mongolian is very dissatisfied, was probably his intention to deviate from the central axis of the south, north direction, so instability in their country.
But then we have a more startling discovery. Kui Yu in the heart has been thinking about the answer to this matter. Directions once when he and his colleagues chat, occasionally brought ancient buildings sometimes associated with the feature distance. This allows Kui Yu in a bright mind, he thought, the Yuan Dynasty originated in Mongolia. Beijing axis to the north, extending to Mongolia, will point to what elements?
Kui Yu immediately got in 9 queen scale topographic maps related. After several calculations, he was surprised to find: Beijing in the north axis extending its extended line directed at the ancient Kaiping. The ancient Kaiping (now located in Xilin Gol League in Inner Mongolia grassland positive blue flag) is not an ordinary place, it is the resurgence of Kublai Hu Bilie, the location of all of the yuan!
Specific calculation result is this: Beijing Yongding Gate latitude line latitude lines to the ancient center of Kaiping distance of about 270 kilometers. Kaiping ancient meridian west deviate from Beijing about 17 kilometers. Beijing to the ancient Beijing-open connection with the meridian angle of 2-3 degrees. This coincides with the direction departing from the center axis of the meridian Beijing Beijing, the deviation angle almost coincide. This shows that: when the original construction Dadu, the axis is taken (all on) and most of Kaiping connection as a reference line!
To confirm this, in November 2004, Kui Yu came in, now known as "Mega Naimansumo" of the ancient ruins of Kaiping shangdu field measurements.
In the element on both eastern suburbs, Kui Feather with a GPS satellite positioning system, so that their primer extension line from the station to the north over Beijing. We looked westward, can be clearly seen on both the east wall of stone masonry. This shows that: in the north of Beijing axis extending north and south line, after more than 270 km long journey, very close to the capital, from the east side on both Guanxiang through.
Of course, if the axis of Beijing and shangdu axis coincide completely ruins the better. But now it seems there are still a few kilometers of errors. But Yuan measurement techniques can not have been so precise, so far in the distance, this error is about completely by the then technical limitations to explain.
Discovered this when, in Yu Kui said, his mood is really very exciting. He believes that he finally got the answer in Beijing axis is offset from the mystery!
Looking through the history books will know, when Hu Bilie is from the yuan have moved the capital to Dadu (now Beijing) is. In fact, Kublai Hu Bilie implementation of "two are inspecting system": Winter office in Dadu, Dadu so-called "winter capital"; summer work on the yuan, the yuan that is both "summer capital."
In Yu Kui said Knowing this can understand, in front of geomancy work built in the Yuan Dynasty, it was possible according to the wishes of the emperor Hu Bilie, to reflect on all - most of the two are unified, while the use of all the - most of the connection as most of the central axis of the baseline and thus the Beijing axis deviation and pointing on both, Kublai intentional!. Feng Shui and the two are connected to a pulse gas Wang, both the central axis into two lines.
This will be offset answer the mystery of the Beijing Axis final answer? We still do not know. Off-axis, which is also what hidden mystery and mystery, to be further opened.
So whether it is the central axis of Beijing city carved geometric lines? In theory, should be the central axis that is carved geometric lines, it should not be referred to the central axis. But the measured results of Beijing, Beijing Axis geometric lines carved Ming is not the city. The distance from the axis to the east wall is slightly shorter than the west wall. Press the Republic of China "Peking actual map", Zhengyang to Chongwenmen about 1785 meters, Chongwenmen East to the wall along the 1450 meters, a total of 3225 meters. Zhengyang to Xuanwumen 2075 meters, Xuanwumen West to the wall along the 1450 meters, a total of 3525 meters. In comparison, 300 meters Zhengyang short distance to the east wall Zhengyang than the distance to the west wall, that wall Lower East Side shrink 300 meters.
Why in the east wall shrink it?
One theory is that, at the time of the original plan to build the east wall, where there is a puddle, is not easy to build the city. East wall had to shrink slightly inward, away from the central axis of the east wall west wall away from the central axis than the slightly shorter, but also caused the axis is not a geometry carve line.
So where Beijing carved geometric lines? According to the principle of symmetry 300 meters in two, from now about 150 meters west axis that is Beijing carved geometric lines. And now Old Drum Tower Street just west axis in the 163 meters, very close to the city carved geometric lines. That is why some scholars believe that the Old Drum Tower Street is the axis of the Yuan Dynasty, the Ming and the central axis slightly to the eastward, away from the city in accordance with carved geometric lines.