Traditional Chinese festivals. The folk custom of Beijing people
Before the 1911 revolution, China adopted the lunar calendar (also known as the xia calendar, the lunar calendar and the old calendar).Since republic of China, although adopted the Gregorian calendar (also known as the Gregorian calendar), but according to the traditional custom, one thousand people are still used to the lunar calendar obsolete for years, as time changes, watered down in some festival customs, disappeared, handed down others.These sections mainly include:
Spring Festival, shangyuan, filling, dragon head, qingming, Dragon Boat Festival, June 6, qixi, zhongyuan festival, Mid-Autumn festival, double ninth festival, cold clothes festival, calendar, winter solstice.
The Spring Festival is traditionally the year of the lunar New Year, which is called the year of the year.It is a grand traditional festival of the whole people.During the Spring Festival, it is customary to worship god and pray for good fortune.To each other, to visit friends and relatives;Visit the temple of the altar, entertainment, life and other activities.The specific contents include laba, sweeping house, memorial hall, the city of the year ago, New Year's eve, New Year's day, offering money god, opening city, "human day", shun xing, etc.
Laba, the eighth day of the old calendar, is a traditional han festival.In the history of justice, don zhang said, "December is also...And the beast of the prey shall be the father of the father, because he made the day.In the han dynasty, the third penta-day after the winter solstice was "laba day", and the southern and northern dynasties were changed to "laba festival" on the eighth day of December. The ancient Chinese New Year actually began on this day.The folk song says: "old lady not upset, after laba is year.Laba porridge, how many days?Strag-strag-twenty..."In the buddhist, it is called" the festival of the festival ".Folk have the custom of making porridge for the Buddha, the family and friends, the food, and the custom of making "laba garlic".
The sweep of the ancient Chinese Spring Festival is called "the year of esau", which originated from the ancient people's ritual of exorcising the disease.It gradually evolved into a year-end health cleanup.According to song wu's "dream of a dream", "December is the end of...No matter the size, the door, the door, the dust, the court...To pray for the New Year."The old Beijing nursery rhyme said: "twenty-three, sweet melon sticks;24, house day...""
After sweeping the house, the whole family will begin to prepare for the New Year, please send out the wax paper code and the supply, write couplets, cut window flowers, buy hanging money, New Year painting, firecrackers...Ready for the New Year.
Kitchen god commonly known as "kitchen god".According to "zuo nan zi", huang di, yan emperor "dead as kitchen god", the staff of good and evil.Since the beginning of the qing dynasty, there have been so-called good books in Beijing, among them "the kitchen god" said: "the kitchen king leaves a scroll of classics, read with the good man's letter female.My name is zhang, and the jade emperor seals me in the kitchen.When I come to the world to search for good and evil, I do not do things first."The folk spread: "the kitchen god the surname zhang, a bowl of cold water three sticks of incense."Believe that god is the god of the jade emperor sent to earth to supervision of good and evil, every year December 24, would go to the play the jade emperor, the report by the door of good and evil deeds, so when 23 night to see him off, is made of polished glutinous rice or malt sugar to stick to his mouth, "mouth filled with meaning, so that god may say more also" (" the national customs "), or as a pair of couplets, require the kitchen god "god say good", in order to protect a peace "lower".
The ritual is a signal of the coming of the old calendar, and the old Beijing is known as "the little year."The nursery rhymes: "sweet melon to the kitchen, New Year's sacrifice, New Year's coming, the girl to spend, the boy to gun...""
The streets of the city were generally entered into the festive season of the Spring Festival on the 15th day of the twelfth month.The Kyoto custom Chronicles: "the city sells the person of the year goods, the chess piece.If the case is a few strokes of ink, people from the book, five colors fresh, thousands of string eyes, then the sale of the deputy and the reed scale, the stall, the Buddha flower offerings, the bowl pestle mortar.All the things that are used in god's daily life are filled with the word.The decoration of the festive atmosphere is colorful and colorful.Painting sheds for New Year paintings;To write and sell couplet, cross - batch, door heart, holding column, counterparty, Spring Festival, Buddha pair;Buy the money, sell the yuan treasure, sell the flowers, sell the flannelette, the silk flower, sell the pine tree branch, sesame straw, sell the lantern, sell the candy, sell the mixed seed, sell the firecrackers,...All together.
On New Year's eve, lunar New Year's eve is the New Year's eve, commonly known as the Spring Festival, the main activities of the old and welcoming people are concentrated on this day, the Spring Festival reaches the climax, the most solemn and lively.
To dot point of view, foil the atmosphere of the "fortune orientation", every family to stick couplets on the Spring Festival, the door, please, with red paper to write "happy day increases the years person life-extension, ChunManQianKun with", "another year, the grass is greener still miles apricot blossom red", "the spirit" and "rise see xi", "floor brightness", "slotted head prosperity", "appropriate into the New Year, in the front, the family, the population of peace", "maxim", "two thousand" and other festive and auspicious words.Also post door god, hang money and so on.
The past old Beijing 90% of house perennial supply of niches or statues, the year of jubilee, for just before the buddhist statues, offerings are feed, sets of fresh, fruit, bread, noodles best fruit, cakes, rice cakes year dinner, dumplings or steam steamed buns, etc, bowel and so on.The house of the six gods, such as the king of the stove, the god of wealth and the land, will be offered and burned incense.On the second day of the twelfth lunar month, the king of the kitchen has been incinerated, and on this day, a new kitchen god will be asked to be labeled as "safe".
The year of jubilee is also the custom of ancestor worship, to reflect the traditional virtue of "filial piety".
There is a family dinner on New Year's eve.The old Beijing year of the jubilee food and drink, the staple food, the dishes all have the traditional fixed set.The main course is boiled dumplings.On New Year's eve dinner, the family wants to be together, so-called "reunion dinner".Abundant food meal as more as possible, predicted in the coming year, was said to each other wish, full of happy atmosphere, the meal can eat slowly, and sometimes eat until late at night, the next "shou sui".
Traditionally, after dinner to night indirectly god, can't go to bed before New Year's greetings, "shou sui" - the next morning, represent the bowed out of the old people have the meaning of cherish time, young for inclined wish in the meaning of life.Anyone whose parents are alive must be punctual.
The next step is to hold a meeting of god and group worship.
Into the house (night) after twelve o 'clock can meet god, presided over by the home most inclined, according to the book xian that joy on the day of god, the god of wealth in the New Year's day, the god of fortune, of YangGui, Yin your gods and azimuth, leads into the courtyard host for incense to all parties, in turn, proffering flaming, said god, meet god a etiquette program finished, the whole family to worship, will first ancestor, then elders sitting in class (or on kang) accept small children are happy New Year, wardrobe proffering flaming, said some wishes of auspicious words, elders are routinely give some "lucky money" to the young players not being grown up.
The first day of the New Year's day is New Year's day, and the "officers" (men) of friends and colleagues are greeting each other."Ladies" should wait until the sixth day of the first month to pay a New Year of worship.
In the qing dynasty, officials paid a New Year's greetings to each other, an unwritten protocol and an opportunity to connect with their superiors and colleagues.To reduce the traffic, xing xing "group worship".Qing, art birth side cap remaining tan said: "the capital in the beginning, regular worship, with years of yi, with the relative merits of nostalgia, sincere kindness, also each age by the book value in the red book, eating dinner, JingRi huan."After the republic of China, the "group worship" of organs and groups was more prevalent.
There is a wide range of people to visit each other in a wide range of forms, such as visiting relatives, first having to go to the father-in-law, the mother and the family, and other close relatives before and after.A courtesy call on colleagues and friends, a grateful visit to others, and a series of "congrats to a fortune" in the neighborhood of the neighbors.
The god of wealth and mammon is a common god of many classes.On the second morning of the first month, all the old Beijing residents and traders offered sacrifices to the god of wealth.
Opening from the first to the fifth, the shop in the street on the shutter and some painted "the water margin liangshan", "taoyuan three sworn", the loyalty of patriotism, such as strip curtains, said Chinese New Year break.A "break five" (on the 5th), year of jubilee is basically in the past, as some stores "send", set off firecrackers, of open Windows, in an atmosphere of warm wishes above, did good "opening, prospered" red couplets, started business formally.
On the seventh day of the first lunar month, the date of the first day of the lunar calendar was called "human day", "man's day", or "seven yuan".This ancient festival has a history of at least two thousand years.
According to Taoist, "the rooster, the second dog, the second pig, the sheep, the second horse, the stranger."In the book of the book, "the book" of the han people, said: "the first day of the first month is the day of the rooster, the second day the dog, three days a pig, four days a sheep, five days a cow, six days a horse, seven days a man, eight days a valley".If the weather is clear, it will be auspicious. If the main year goes well, the population will be safe and the population will be safe.At the beginning of qing dynasty, from Beijing in the first month seven days have activities of rain or shine, "ren" on this day to eat the ripening (a kind of double lotus leaf cake) volume "box food" (such as pork chops, XiaoDu cooked meat dish), and cut the bread Yu Geng courtyard, called "smoking".But the range of the vulgar spread is smaller and smaller, the late qing dynasty is not seen much.
The star is also called a sacrifice star.On the eighth evening of the first lunar month, people would go to the temple to carry out the sacrificial rites of the stars.When the star, want to place a "gold lamp" (yellow light flower) at the place of desk of desk, kitchen, door, boiler, and light, call "scatter lamp flower", have to avoid to avoid the meaning of ominously.After the star-making, the family gathered for a yuanxiao.