Hong Kong history overview
Before the opening
The British colony said Hong Kong had not had the concept of "Hong Kong" before, so the previous history was attached to the history of lingnan or Hong Kong.
Neolithic in Hong Kong area affected by the culture in the middle reach of Yangtze river, pearl river delta period with cultural network, many places are found in the New Territories and lantau island neolithic settlements and jade forging workshop site.In the first 214 years (30 years after the first emperor of the qin dynasty), the qin dynasty sent its troops to the south China sea to bring the territory of Hong Kong into its territory.In 736 (the tang dynasty), Hong Kong belonged to the state (now huizhou) and set up tuen mun army town. The two thousand soldiers stationed in tuen mun were stationed in tuen mun to protect the sea trade.The five New Territories are also said to have moved into the New Territories since the tang dynasty and have been around since the southern song dynasty.
Since the tang dynasty (check) moved to the sea and to the qing dynasty emperor kangxi years, the drain source (now), shatin, Hong Kong, big XiShan (now lantau) sha lo wan soil is suitable for tooth incense tree growth, kinds of fragrant and sweet also gradually developed.According to research, the Ming dynasty by the dongguan xinan across southern, (including Hong Kong) of products will be via overland to tsimshatsui head (today), Tsim Sha Tsui, by boat to stone bay (now Aberdeen), reoccupy is commonly known as "large" chicken Cao shipping to guangzhou, and then sent to the suzhou and hangzhou sales.
In the five dynasties and ten years, as a result of the great strides (now in tai Po), there were pearls of pearls, and the southern han dynasty established the official ball game in 963, which was called the "mei chuan".In 971 (four years of kaibao in the northern song dynasty), the Kowloon bay area (now kwun tong) was established to be rich, with salt officers stationed in the area.At the end of the southern song dynasty, the emperor Song Duan is zhao and song emperor 昺 zhao 昺 be pushed the yuan dynasty army fled to Hong Kong, is said to have rested on a big rock to kwa wan, after said of song dynasty queen cell.
In 1514, the Portuguese sent troops to the tuen mun, and the Ming army fought against Portugal in 1521 (zhengde 16). The history of tuen mun was a great success.In the early qing dynasty, Hong Kong was under the jurisdiction of xinan county.In 1662 (the first year of kangxi), the qing court ordered the sea to be moved to the sea, and the Hong Kong area was severely affected.Later, the governor of guangdong province, zhou youde, governor of guangdong province, asked for a reply. In 1669 (eight years of kangxi), the court allowed the residents to move back in succession.
The British hong early
Shortly after the opium war broke out in 1840, the qing emperor daoguang turned to the Lord and sent his minister qi shan to negotiate with the British in guangzhou.On January 27, 1841 good and elliot drawn up under the qing court and the British government not wear nose protocol, and on January 20, made by elliot "give notice of her majesty's subjects, claims between he and march is good" reached a preliminary agreement ", which contains "and harbour, Hong Kong island was ceded to Britain", and on January 26, in the water of the north shore of Hong Kong island pithead landed.However, the British military did not withdraw from Hong Kong island because of the fact that the qing court and the British political and economic circles believed that there was too little national humiliation and too little profit.Until 1842, the qing dynasty was defeated by the British empire in the first opium war, and in the next year and Britain signed the treaty of nanjing which will not formally ceded Hong Kong island, together with the adjacent wash and parboilduck tongues states and the UK.In 1860, the qing dynasty was defeated by the British and French forces, and was forced to sign the treaty of Beijing and cede the south of the Kowloon Peninsula along with the neighboring stonecutters island to Britain.At the time, the new border on the Kowloon Peninsula was separated only by a low barbed wire, and the location is today's boundary street.In 1898, the British signed with the qing dynasty through the exhibition site designed article of the extension of Hong Kong, and other series of loan deals, on loan, Kowloon Peninsula, northern New Territories and the neighbourhood of more than two hundred islands, except the Kowloon walled city, lease in 99.This series of leases and cuts formed the boundary of Hong Kong today.
Anti-japanese high light
The sino-japanese war broke out when Japanese troops landed in guangdong in 1938 and quickly occupied guangzhou and nearby areas of Hong Kong, sending spies into Hong Kong to investigate the location of British troops.On December 8, 1941, a few hours after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese attacked malaya and crossed the shenzhen river to seize Hong Kong.In the meantime, there have been a lot of fierce fighting between Japan and Canada and the British Indian army.On December 25th, as a result of a shortage of British troops in Hong Kong, Hong Kong's governor, Yang muqi, announced his surrender to Japan, starting with the Japanese government's three-year, eight-month period.
The British flag was once again raised in Hong Kong's general office.The government of the republic of China was unable to get justice to the British government as the civil war resumed.Successors of the communist party of China was established in 1949, after the regime of the People's Republic of China, Chinese, English to reach an agreement on Hong Kong issues: sovereignty, China has no intention to recover Hong Kong in Hong Kong also not to interfere in the national government military and civilian activities, in exchange for the admission of the People's Republic of China.
The post-war development
In the 1950 s, because of the People's Republic of China in the Korean war and the west, western countries embargo, make Hong Kong transit goods in the People's Republic of China, the only place which collect funds, gather information.Hong Kong has also shifted from entrepot to development industry, and the economy has developed rapidly.However, in 1966, the cultural revolution swept the Chinese mainland, and red guards repeatedly attempted to cross the china-hong kong border.Later, the left openly responded to the call of the domestic antagonist, and in Hong Kong more violence.Hong Kong was in a state of panic when it was filled with the fake "pineapple" of "people not close", in which a number of civilians were killed by real bombs and other methods.Zhou enlai, the premier of the state council of the People's Republic of China, insisted on the principle of "long-term utilization and full intention" and insisted on not taking back Hong Kong, so that the matter would be settled.
After the riots of the late 1960s, the Hong Kong government adjusted its policy in the early 1970s, gradually absorbing Chinese into the decision-making mechanism and reducing the possibility of endangering the British governance of Hong Kong.Hong Kong experienced a great recession in 1973 due to the oil crisis, but it has been growing at a rapid rate for more than two decades since 1974.Hong Kong metro started in 1970 s, the agency set up, began to implement nine-year free forced education, and further expand public housing plan, such as building ten years plan and home ownership scheme, are "economic miracle" lay the foundation of the future of Hong Kong.
In the early 1970s, due to the New Territories land contract, the Hong Kong government had to consider the future of Hong Kong.The British government has repeatedly asked to extend the lease of the New Territories to the government of the People's Republic of China, but it has been refused by the government of the People's Republic of China.In the early 1980s, the UK had proposed the separation of Hong Kong's "sovereignty" and "the right to control", the former to the People's Republic of China, but the UK remained in power.On September 22, 1982, British prime minister Margaret thatcher to put forward the policy in Beijing, intends to continue to the governance of Hong Kong, but this time, the leader deng xiaoping strongly opposed and never give in, but said can let the people of Hong Kong will be entitled "a high degree of autonomy, Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong".For China to take a strong stance in Hong Kong, Hong Kong during the period of prices, stock and the Hong Kong dollar to continue to slump, more in September 1983, the Hong Kong dollar crisis, Hong Kong dollar from about 6 1982 hk dollar fell to a record low of hk $9.6 to the dollar.In order to save the Hong Kong financial system, the Hong Kong government announced the exchange rate system on October 15, 1983, at a rate of hk $7.8 to $1.The peg has been in place since then.
On December 19, 1984, in English and the two sides signed the government of the People's Republic of China and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland government joint declaration on the question of Hong Kong, hereinafter referred to as the Sino-British joint declaration.
According to the statement, the UK should transfer the sovereignty of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China on July 1, 1997, while Hong Kong becomes a special administrative region of the People's Republic of China.
In this agreement, the government of the People's Republic of China will be in accordance with deng xiaoping proposed the "one country, two systems" policy, to ensure that the socialist system of the People's Republic of China will not in Hong Kong shall, except in foreign and defence and to ensure that Hong Kong various aspects have a high degree of autonomy.
The SAR period
On July 1, 1997, the handover of Hong Kong, Hong Kong formally ended more than 150 years of governance in the UK, becoming the special administrative region of the People's Republic of China, and tung chee-hwa was the first chief executive.However, the Asian financial crisis three months later has a significant negative impact on the Hong Kong economy.In the same year, Hong Kong was the first to spot human infection with avian influenza a (H5N1).In 1999, the Hong Kong stock market was once again in a state of madness, mainly because of the American Internet boom.But as America's dotcom boom faded, the Hong Kong dotcom bubble burst, and in 2001, after 9/11, Hong Kong's economy continued to decline.Coupled with the impact of the economic transition and globalization, unemployment and deflation have been brought to light.The government is vulnerable to policy mistakes and the climate of discontent is growing, and the recession has continued until the end of 2003.
In the spring of 2003, Hong Kong was hit by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak.In the case of the disease, there were 1,755 infections in Hong Kong, with 299 deaths and the highest death rate.Direct economic losses topped 3.8 billion Hong Kong dollars and unemployment rose to an all-time high of 8.7 percent.The same year, the government is the basic law of Hong Kong article 23 questions about national security legislation, because the mismanaged, become public dissatisfaction with the government policy of fuse, cause in the same year in Hong Kong on July 1, the July 1 demonstration, so the government finally shelved legislation.After the parade, the central government of the People's Republic of China implemented some preferential policy for Hong Kong, Hong Kong and mainland China such as the implementation of the "closer economic partnership arrangement (CEPA), and" Hong Kong and Macao individual travel ", and to carry out the construction of hong kong-zhuhai-macao bridge, consolidate Hong Kong's position as Asia logistics center, and expect to reduce public discontent.The SAR government has also begun to develop population policies to attract specialist immigrants and investment migrants to improve the quality of the population.In July and August 2004, there was a slight inflation in Hong Kong, which formally emerged from a period of deflation that lasted 68 months.
On March 12, 2005, chief executive tung chee-hwa abruptly announced his resignation as a result of health problems, and tsang, then chief secretary of administration, was formally appointed by the central government on June 21.In the same year the Hong Kong government launched the constitutional development task force report no. 5, but being criticized by pro-democracy legislators too conservative, bill for votes do not more than two thirds, but not approved, so the 2007 chief executive election method of Hong Kong and Hong Kong's legislative council election in 2008 remain unchanged.
The election of the chief executive of the Hong Kong special administrative region was successfully held on March 25, 2007.An election committee, like the previous one, was voted by an 800-member electoral commission, and Mr Tsang won re-election by 649 votes, after the pro-democracy party sent his party's party, Mr Alan leong, to the polls.