Hong Kong culture and art: cantonese pop music
Cantonese pop music, generally refers to Hong Kong with Cantonese, Cantonese singing pop song, because Hong Kong's original composer is Cantonese, also known as Cantonese songs, Cantonese songs. Generally referred to as the modern "Cantonese pop music", Hong Kong since the 1970s, by the Lotus band singer singer Xu Guanjie driven by a trend, followed by the vigorous development of Cantonese pop song; this definition is also in line with most of the The Cognitive Scope of "Cantonese Pop Songs" Written by Hong Kong People born in the 1970s or Later. Like other pop music, Cantonese pop is a commodity; a reflection of a period of social outlook and values of goods.
Cantonese pop music history
In general, the origins of the Cantonese language were still in the early 1950s, but the exact source was still different. But the early Cantonese pop song from the Cantonese song in the small song, is an indisputable fact. In addition to the original Guangdong spectrum, a large number of easy to use and popular Mandarin language song, Ouxi pop song and other provinces folk songs, fill in Cantonese lyrics, Cantonese opera singing and soundtrack appeared.
The social structure of Hong Kong before the 1950s can be divided into three classes: the upper level is the British colonial government officials, foreign firms and a handful of Chinese businessmen and wealthy businessmen; middle class only a few; the lower is the helper, clerks, and the majority Of the working population. The exchanges and flows of all walks of life are different, and they are clearly different and communicate with each other. However, the influx of immigrants into Hong Kong in 1949, Hong Kong's population soared to 2.5 million people, more than four times before the war. Among the new immigrants, in addition to a small number of capital businessmen and professionals, the vast majority are Cantonese Cantonese residents in Cantonese, in early 1950, the real popular music is Cantonese opera.
From the Cantonese opera breeds a pure singing of the Cantonese opera song, will be all out of Cantonese opera into zero, spread in the folk, the general song attached to the restaurant, for the people tea listening to music, consumption is popular, civilians can afford, in five In the early fifties, very prosperous.
And by the 1960s, it was also popular in Hong Kong, where many Hong Kong films were more popular in Southeast Asia and other places, and Tan Bingwen, Deng Jiedu and Zheng Junmian were present at the time. At that time, Cantonese pop music was only an attachment to Cantonese movies, and it was not an independent career for artists. And generally Hong Kong Cantonese opera Cantonese opera style of the singing is not easy to young people like, is considered old and the city, like "Temple Street Prince" - Yin Guang is one of the representatives. At that time most of the young people still prefer the English songs and Mandarin songs. In the late 1960s, Zheng Jinchang and Lisa from Singapore opened the Hong Kong market. At that time, Zheng Jinchang was known as "the Prince of Cantonese opera", and Lisa was called "Queen of Yuequ". Their classic songs include "New Zen Bell", "Tangshan big brother", "Acacia tears" and so on, but still not make Cantonese pop music out of the lower class music image. Other major film actors such as Chen Baozhu, Hu Feng, Lu Qi, Xiao Fangfang also have a lot of song works, mainly film episode.
Early Hong Kong's entertainment venues such as lounges and nightclubs were dominated by English songs and Mandarin songs. At that time, local famous singers were more familiar to Hong Kong people, including Joe Junior and Irene Ryder and Teddy (Teddy Robin) and so on. The main reason for the popularity of English songs is to sing such high-level entertainment places to the mainstream of foreign society, only a few Chinese more social status and economic capacity to bear such advanced consumption.
In the 1970s (after 1949, the Cantonese pop song)
In 1974, Sindokla (Sindokla) was invited singer "sigh marriage", and in advance she is a never singing Cantonese songs of the English singer. This song by Gu Jiahui composer and Ye Shaode lyrics as a drama theme song, in the beautiful melody with elegant lyrics with the TV series made the popular trend, once became the hot music.
Hong Kong TV drama in the 1970s began to pop, for the Cantonese pop song into a powerful driving force. The theme song of the TV series can become a popular classic. Among them, the music TV music director Gu Jiahui's composer is most familiar. Many of the 1970s to the 1980s by Gu Jiahui composer, Huang Zhan lyrics of the theme song, has still been regarded as the classic Cantonese opera.
In 1974, Xu Guanjie lead singer "Tower Lingyun" can be said that the beginning of modern Cantonese pop song. In the early 1970s, Hong Kong radio and television program "Double Star Annunciation" rave reviews, presided over the program of Xu Guan and Xu Guanjie two brothers and fame and fortune (his brother Xu Guanying later also involved in entertainment, known as the three brothers), Xu Guanwen before the show Travel around the world and thus made an English poem, returned to Hong Kong after Xu Guanjie feel very interesting so to "Tower Lingyun" Chinese lyrics and lead singer, in the new series of "binary star" published (then the song called "this appearance "), The results of an unprecedented welcome and popular, led the rapid development of Hong Kong contemporary Cantonese pop song.
After the praise of the "iron tower Lingyun", the other singers have changed the route of singing the national language song and the foreign language song, among which the most famous are the band, Xu Xiaofeng, Luo Wen, Jenny, Lin Zixiang, Guan Zhengjie, Ye Liyi, Ye Zhentang, Chen Jie Ling and so on. The atmosphere of society gradually changed, people began to no longer think that singing English songs and Mandarin songs is a high style of performance.
This period of the United States pop music authority magazine "bulletin board" (Billboard) appeared on the "Cantopop" this English name called Cantonese pop song.
The change in the style of the lyrics
Early Cantonese chanting, there are two polarized lyrics: part of the same as Cantonese opera, with more rigorous written language and even classical writing lyrics. This kind of more elegant songs are still familiar, there are "horizon solitary", "laughing marriage" and "a water every other horizon" and so on (some of these songs lyrics style, but also by the impact of Japanese songs) ; The other is what people say "ghost horse song" to Hong Kong authentic Cantonese spoken words, singing the contents of the same as the general dialogue. Because its content is often humorous gray harmonic, describing the general public experience and feelings, so get the grassroots level of resonance, it is the name. For example: "half a catty and eighty two", "beat the heroic biography".
The Rise of "City Folk Song"
From the late 1970s to the early 1980s, by Li Taixiang's composition, female writer Sanmao Ci, Qi Yu singing "olive tree" with Taiwan's "campus folk song" popular in Hong Kong and Taiwan, while promoting Hong Kong "city folk song" rise , Led to the Hong Kong Radio hosted the "Hong Kong City Folk Song Contest", produced a "ask" (District Guifen, Ye Yuanchun lead singer), "last night ferry" (Li Bingwen lead singer) and other folk songs. The commercial radio "six beer half" album jockers singing the "city folk song" series, also show the local creation of new forces. "City folk song" can be regarded as a contemporary Cantonese pop song into a stream.
In the 1980s (classic superstar era)
In the 1980s, it was not only the days of Cantonese pop music, but also the glorious heyday of Hong Kong music scene. Chinese people in mainland China and Taiwan did not even understand Cantonese and listen to Cantonese pop songs and even sing along. From the late 1970s to the early 1980s, the personal style is strong and can be independent of the classic Cantonese singers come forth in large numbers, with behind the scenes music talent emerged, the achievements of the classic superstar era. Heavyweight strength singer, song school such as Guan Zhengjie, Xu Xiaofeng, Jenny, Luo Wen, singing type such as Guan Jiejie, Lin Zixiang, Chen Baiqiang, as well as "super idol" Alan Tam, Leslie Cheung and Anita Mui are shine at the same time become a classic. This group of singers, both in the music Yi Yi, on-site skill and song diversity in all aspects of improving, superior strength, for the music later set a model. And its record of music, hair piece and sales volume, also confirms the period of Hong Kong Cantonese pop music development is mature, rich and varied, unprecedented.
Among them, Alan Tam, Leslie Cheung and Anita Mui in the mid-1980s began to dominate the music scene, was shaped as epoch-making star, not only record sales, concert number / field number hit the peak, each of the song, image and typhoon is also widely fans crazy , Enduring, still has a cross-era influence. From the late 1980s to the beginning of the 1990s, Ye Qianwen, Sandy Lam, Priscilla, the band Beyond, the Tai Chi band, the Ming dynasty school and the combination of grasshoppers and so on have been popular music scene, smash hit. In 1993, Huang Jiaju died in Japan, is a great loss of Cantonese pop music.
Widely adapted songs
From the early 1980s onwards, the Hong Kong music scene began to enter a large number of Japanese adaptation of the song, as Alan Tam's "forget you" (five round true bow "lovers"), "wine red heart" (security zone "ワ イ ン レ ッ ド heart"), Leslie's "uninhibited wind" ("La Vie En Rose"), "Monica" (Yoshikawa Koji "Moro"). And Anita Mui's "Song of the Sunset" more and Priscilla's "thousands of Que song" and Blue Jeans "boring time" at the same time adapted from Kondo Shinya's "song". Which Jacky Cheung cover the "Sun Star" (Tokunaga wise "BIRDS") has been hailed as one of the most important songs affecting Hong Kong pop music. In the local original music power downhill at the same time, many Taiwan original songs have become a local adaptation of the object. This not only enriched the local music scene, but also indirectly contributed to the late eighties to the early nineties a group of Taiwanese singing musicians in Hong Kong, such as Tong Ange, Wu Qixian, Wang Jie, Zhou Huajian and so on.
During the 1990s, Jacky Cheung, Andy Lau, Dawn and Aaron Kwok were the media called "four kings", "four kings" dominate the Hong Kong music scene, and monopoly of the four major electronic media awards ceremony awards. Although Jacky Cheung with outstanding singing and dominate the entire music scene, and became the 1990's music superstar, but the music scene has begun to show idol and not heavy strength of the phenomenon (such as Sandy Lam's "wild flower" reputation applause, but there "song high and widowed" The phenomenon of the album from the market to be seen), the first Cantonese singers are also considered only a group of Jacky Cheung is the strength of the main development of the singer. Female singer, Faye Wong's many works are considered to be a variety of alternative music attempt, 80 years after the band boom in Cantonese music on the most exploratory, music personality one of the most unique tree singer. And with bold and vivid image known as Sammi Cheng also won the public attention and appreciation, but also for the debut of the 1990s female singers Red Club personal concert the highest total number of singers. Other singers such as Zhizhi, Shirley Kwan, Li Keqin, Zhou Huimin, Peng Ling, etc., also in the same period have been popular music scene.
"Two days later" female singer, in 1992 with a "vulnerable woman" to become the music days after the Faye Wong, in addition to the more popular songs, Faye Wong's many works are considered a variety of alternative music attempts , Such as "dreamer", "open to tea extravagant" and so on, is 80 years after the band boom in Cantonese music on the most exploratory, music personality one of the most unique tree singer to 9.8 million Nice world record confirmed as the world's highest Cantonese album sales of Hong Kong female singer.
In 1995 to "let you" rise to the famous Hong Kong music scene Sammi Cheng is its song and Variety image and said. Bold and clear image to Sang Xiuwen won the record industry and the public attention and appreciation, by the Hong Kong media known as the "Variety days", debut album sales so far up to 25 million, but also for the debut of the 1990 female singers Honghu individual concert The highest championship record.
Music new try
After 1996, Jacky Cheung began to try out a number of different performances to explore the potential of Hong Kong pop music and to help other singers to find more opportunities for development. He collaborated with the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra in 1996 for four live concerts. Symphony ", the combination of pop music and symphony, was to win outside the excellent response, so that many young people in Hong Kong in the most direct way to contact the symphony and even in the field of classical music, a number of popular singers is to take the initiative to follow, Series of pop and symphony performances, have received a very good response. Then he launched a large musical in 1997: "Snow Wolf Lake" production and performance, then in Hong Kong Stadium succession field, the last continuous performance of 42 games, became the hot topic of the city, and Cantonese pop music and music The play is perfectly accommodated in one, affecting the coverage to Greater China. "Snow Wolf Lake" success for pop music singer is a new attempt, the play in many countries and regions have received extensive praise and success, but because of various factors, the other singer did not take the initiative to follow, To a trend. But the musical model after he stuck out, also became the other Cantonese pop music singer to develop a variety of "new road."
Advertising songs in full bloom
"Four Kings" also have a lot of participation in advertising performances, so that advertising songs are very popular, among them Jacky Cheung's PCCW series of years of advertising, dawn of Hutchison Telecom advertising, Andy Lau's advertising and Aaron Kwok's Pepsi advertising impact. Other singers are also competing to follow suit.
In the 2000s (Hongkong and Dance)
At the end of 1999, Lei Songde introduced electronic dance music from Korea, and created many dance music for Kelly and Dawn, including: "Love Erotic", "Eyes want to travel", "Happy 2000" and so on, and achieved unprecedented success.
Period, by the music days after Kelly Chen, Sammi Cheng and King dawn, Aaron Kwok led the electronic dance trend is out of control, set off the Chinese music tide. Kelly Chen with the album "Flower Universe" a get up to 200,000 annual sales, crazy music and the majority of Chinese fans, especially in Hong Kong and Taiwan to the disco. Zheng Xiuhua adapted by the Korean singer Li Zhenxian's dance music "evil science" to make the image more vivid and its craze pushed to Taiwan, "Ladies First" a plate sales of more than 100,000. Aaron Kwok in the same year in the Hong Kong Coliseum "Pepsi Aaron Kwok Live On Stage Concert 2000" more than 28 games, breaking their personal concert records. Four of the electronic dance tide popular in Taiwan, mainland China, Southeast Asia and other places, the dance language version, such as: "as dancing", "enraptured", "incredible", "Para Para Sakura", "Happy 2000" are four The king of heaven after the classic Chinese masterpiece. This phenomenon lasted until mid-2001.
"Four kings" after the star movement
As the music industry talented yellow, record companies have emerged layoffs and graduation tide. The record company to find ways to make money and try to invite the film industry's popular actor to become a singer, or find a model to become a singer, so that the Hong Kong music scene has become the emphasis on the market and the image without attention to singing strength, a large number of only appearance but the song of mediocre new Music scene emerged, popular popular combination Twins is the emergence of this period of the leader. However, most of the new singers who debuted during this period did not have any influence, and soon debut soon disappeared. In December 2006, Twins' emperor's entertainment and long-term monopoly of the Hong Kong music market television station TV set up an openly used as a "star" TV channel, but they obviously overlook the current reality - in the Hong Kong, due to a large number of previous singers high-profile back, as well as the network of songs and non-mainstream music developed by broadband and the rapid rise, coupled with fans of the strength of the requirements of Hong Kong singers become rigorous, "star" Has been invalidated. Hong Kong local pop music because of excessive emphasis on packaging and excessive weakening of the overall strength of music, has been considered far less glorious period of the 1980s and the 1990s.