Hong Kong city art: martial arts films
Martial arts, is a unique concept and culture in China. China has a rich history of martial arts culture, and in the history of the river into the Confucian, Taoism, Buddhism and other doctrines, and gradually become an indispensable history of Chinese culture and faith. The martial arts film, is one of the best embodiment of this culture. Through the lens of the language and dramatic plot, in-depth display of the essence and connotation of Chinese martial arts culture. And through the film world language to the world to show China's most unique martial arts culture.
Chinese martial arts broad and profound, long history, China's martial arts film is a beautiful Chinese landscape, many foreigners know that Chinese films are from the martial arts films began. The first in the United States 1000 cinema at the same time do business show of Chinese film is Hong Kong, China, "the world's first boxing" (Shaw company produced in 1971, director: Zheng Changhe, starring: Luo Lie), the first in the highest international Level film festival won the award of the Chinese film is "Chivalrous" (in the 1975 Cannes Film Festival won the comprehensive technology award).
Hong Kong martial arts film history
In the late 1940s, China's martial arts films began to revive in Hong Kong, in 1949, Hong Kong director Hu Peng shot the first to the Guangdong folk legend martial arts figures Huang Feihong hero film, after nearly 50 years, Huang Feihong became Chinese martial arts Film a famous brand, before and after the Dexing, Jet Li and so on more than a dozen stars in nearly 100 such subjects in the film and TV drama to play the role of Huang Feihong, Hu Peng, Tsui Hark and many other famous director filmed the subject , Which by Hu Peng director, Guan Dexing starring the Huang Feihong series shot nearly 80 sets. Throughout the 50's, Hong Kong and Taiwan's martial arts films generally have two types, one is like the Huang Feihong like the Republic of loading, a kind of martial arts martial arts film, the former masterpiece is the Huang Feihong series, the latter's representative There are "Tathagata palm" and other films.
In the early 1960s, Hong Kong and Taiwan martial arts films of the martial arts by the impact of the Japanese warrior film, imitation inside the martial arts moves, the subject is also very narrow, in addition to Juxian god is revenge. In 1964, Hong Kong Phoenix shot "Golden Eagle" (director: Chen Jingbo, starring: lofty, Zhu Hong), shooting in Inner Mongolia, which shows the wrestling, sets of horse and other traditional national martial arts, as well as the magnificent scenery of the Mongolian grassland The Is an innovative martial arts film. In the second year, the Great Wall Company filmed the "sea of clouds jade bow" (director: Zhang Xinyan, starring: Fu Qi, Chen Sisi) is in the martial arts film credits for the first time inside the "martial arts guide" the term, the film is considered Is the martial arts piece of the first landmark works, martial arts guide has become an important part of martial arts films. Since then, the martial arts piece of the golden age came.
From 1965 onwards, Shaw's boss, Shaw Shaw, was tired of the proliferation of old-fashioned martial arts films, and he was determined to shoot a new type of martial arts film. After several attempts, Zhang Che and Hu Jinquan captured the martial arts film in 1966 As "one arm" and "drunk man". These two films laid their important position in the film. Zhang Che and Hu Jinquan is absolutely martial arts film godfather's director, they are two different styles, Zhang Che like to render violence, martial arts action more realistic, often shooting some scenes such as the sausage wars, always flow into the river, Shoot a movie used as a fake tomato juice is necessary two gasoline tube. And Hu Jinquan is emphasis on freehand, love the martial arts love to do rendering. They two people on the development of martial arts made a significant contribution. Train a group of actors and director of this talent. Participated in the Hu Jinquan film performances Xu Feng, White Eagle, Tian Peng, who have become Taiwan's top pieces of martial arts films. And the hands of Zhang hand to cultivate this talent is more, such as Wang Yu, Luo Lie, Di Long, Li Xiuxian, Jiang David, Chen Xing, Chen Guantai, Fu sound and so are the 70s of Hong Kong martial arts film famous movie star, in the Director Zhang Che also cultivate the Wu Yu-sen, afternoon horse and other talent, especially the John Woo is more memorable. And Zhang, Hu 2 co-martial arts cooperation, such as Yuan Heping, Liu Jiariang, Tang Jia, Han Yingjie, who became a hot martial arts talent guide.
In the last century 70's, Hong Kong and Taiwan martial arts film famous director in addition to Zhang, Hu 2 people also Luo Wei, Guo Nanhong, Chu and other more representative figures. Luo Wei life countless films, his greatest contribution is directed by the "big brother Tangshan" and "fine door", playing the red Bruce Lee this internationally renowned martial arts superstar. Guo Nanhong from Taiwan is the director of the Taiwanese art film, in the late 1960s when the martial arts film began to popular martial arts films, he directed the "generation of sword king" and "ghost see worry" in Taiwan sensation, "see you Worry "is the red in the play inside the big villain to see the character of the character of the original Yi, Yi Yuan Guo Nanhong later became one of the Royal actor. Guo Nanhong shooting martial arts film content is rich, but the quality is uneven, there are "Shaolin eighteen copper" such a classic, there are "fire Shaolin Temple" like the failure of his 70 years for some time and Zhang Che Shooting Shaolin theme film, Zhang Che like to shoot hard bridge hard horse fist to the flesh of the real effort, Guo Nanhong preferred organ set, this competition in 1976 to Guo Nanhong "fire Shaolin Temple" box office fiasco ended. In the 1960s and early 1970s, Shou Chu, who was born in the 1950s and early 1970s, had photographed the business cards that reflected the social reality theme, and then joined the ranks of martial arts films. , Director of the "love slave" and a large number of adaptation of the ancient dragon martial arts novel film "meteor butterfly sword", "Tianya moon knife" and so on, both by Dillon starring, a time Cologne + Chu Chuan + Dilong became costume martial arts piece of iron Triangle, Chu original works of the plot strange, suspense strong, luxurious scenery.
Chinese martial arts films in the 1970s began to the international market. Many people think that Bruce Lee made foreigners know the Chinese martial arts, in fact, the first overseas business show in overseas martial arts film is produced in 1971 Shaw company, Zheng Chang and director, Luo Lie starred in the "best in the world", the Film in the United States 1000 mainstream theater at the same time release, unprecedented. But it touches Li Xiaolong really make China kung fu overseas carry forward. Bruce Lee's life, although short, only shot four and a half of the works, "Tangshan big brother", "Fist of Fury", "Raptors across the river", "dragon fight" there are unfinished "death game", but in his film Filled with strong national integrity and patriotism, people look after the spirit of excitement. He created his own Jeet Kune Do Kung Fu power infinite, spread so far. Hollywood many tough stars such as Steve McQueen, James Keben, etc., have studied in the Bruce Lee door. Bruce Lee bizarre after the death, there have been a lot of imitators, how Zong Road, Lu Xiaolong, but can only get its shape and can not get its god.
In the late 1970s, Hong Kong and Taiwan began to decline, this time, all kinds of martial arts film content is nothing more than martial art struggle, academic revenge and the like. Hu Jinquan belongs to the slow work out fine, no new work for several years. Zhang Che is also constantly repeat their own works are no new ideas. To 1978, and finally out of several eyebrows for one of the bright film, there have been several well-known international film characters. Jackie Chan, who had been struggling for many years in the Luo Wei, took a lot of film, but has been half red is not black, in 1978, Zhang has been done for many years martial arts guidance Yuan Weiping for Siyuan company directed "snake Diaozhe" Jackie Chan in the leading role, although the plot is not completely out of old-fashioned, but some innovations in martial arts design, adding a lot of comedy in the story and martial arts, and create a new film, a kind of martial arts films - humorous martial arts, Jackie Chan and give full play He is in the yuan opera troupe learned Peking opera north to send kung fu, become a new idol of the martial arts. After two people re-cooperation "drunk boxing" has become a classic. Liu Jialiang, authentic Southern School martial arts - Fist's successor, as martial arts for many years in the hands of Chang Cheh, he "Shaolin 36 room" because in the film portray Shaolin monks practice adding a lot of scenes and a great success in 1978 and director of martial arts, He directed the "Chinese husband", "18 martial arts" are relatively popular film, he directed the "elders" so that the heroine Hui Yinghong became the first Hong Kong Film Awards. Jackie Chan's brother, Sammo Hung, has also been famous in the 1970s. In 1976, he was the first independent director and starred in the comedy martial arts film "Three German monks and Chung rice six" is Hong Kong's selling film.
In 1981, directed by Zhang Xinyan, shooting in mainland China, all the use of domestic professional martial arts athletes as the role and martial arts design of the "Shaolin Temple" released, this is a martial arts film in the history of a milestone film, the film abandoned the Hong Kong and Taiwan martial arts The film is used in Hong Kong after the release, the box office is odd, the store more than Jackie Chan's "Dragon Young Master, the use of long-term shooting, do not use the substitute, all the real kung fu, the film released in Hong Kong, the box office is odd, "
In the 1980s, the annual output of Hong Kong and Taiwan martial arts has been greatly reduced, in addition to the "Shaolin Temple", "Young younger brother" and a few films, there is little sensation, at this time, Tsui Hark appeared, he was in the United States University of the film after returning to Hong Kong in the TV drama "Golden Swordsman" on the use of the film shooting techniques, he directed the martial arts film "butterfly" is refreshing, he shot in 1984, "Shushan swordsman" , Hire Hollywood stunt production staff, to create a fantasy Sword of the world, the film a great success. During this period, Jackie Chan, Sammo Hung and other works are constantly changing, they shot a series of modern themes Kung Fu films, such as "Fuxing series", "police story series" and "A plan" and so on, A new road, martial arts more attention to speed and intensity, the middle also added some humorous elements. During this period, Jackie Chan in the troupe learning when the "seven small blessing" inside the other brothers such as Yuan Biao, Yuan Kui, Yuan Hua and others in the martial arts films and martial arts field of guidance have become a unique side of the characters.
To the late 80s and early 90s, costume martial arts films began to re-focus on people, Hu Jinquan name, Tsui Hark, Cheng Xiaodong co-director of the "Swordsman", Tsui Hark directed "Huang Feihong", Cheng Xiaodong director " Xu Ke, Cheng Xiaodong, Li Huimin co-director of the "new Dragon Inn" became the masterpiece of this period of martial arts films, this film is characterized by martial arts design abstract, imaginative exceptionally rich. Which Cheng Xiaodong can be said that the martial arts director in a representative figure, he was in the early 80s director of the "life and death" has been able to see his future style. And Tsui Hark's "Huang Feihong" series will be an old folk martial arts legend theme to be innovative, the film in the martial arts disputes to join the era of large turbulence, showing a sense of concern for the people, so that the martial arts films improved A grade. A time to imitate the follow suit for the frequency, we have to fight the costume costume pieces, of which only Yuan Heping "iron monkey" and "fire cloud Cthulhu" fairly innovative. To the mid-90s and tend to decline!
From the liberation to the whole of the 1970s, mainland China did not shoot a martial arts film, in 1980 the mainland director Zhang Huaxun shooting "mysterious Buddha" made him the first director of the mainland martial arts film, although the martial arts design is still immature, but After all, he dares to open the atmosphere first. Later, he directed the "martial arts" is also welcomed by the domestic audience. In 1990, He Ping director of the shooting of the "double flag town knife" can be described as the mainland martial arts film carry tripod for. Since then, martial arts films began to prevail in the mainland for a while, but the overall level of feeling behind Hong Kong and Taiwan martial arts films more than 10 years.
Flash into the new century, Ang Lee's "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon" won the Oscar 4 awards, making China's martial arts films once again the world attention! Some of China's famous directors such as mainland Zhang Yimou, He Ping, Taiwan's Hou Hsiao-hsien are shooting or planning to shoot martial arts films. In the new century, China's martial arts films to a new glory!