Beijing cloisonne crafts Art
Cloisonne enamel art techniques and local rumor is enamel metal product of the combination. It combines history, culture, art and traditional crafts in one, Gu Pu and elegant, exquisite luxury, with unique folk art style and deep cultural connotation.
With the continuous development of cloisonne and the needs of the market, a number of special products, useful products, souvenirs and high, big, fine, sharp, high-quality cloisonne mass production, new varieties, new colors, new technology emerging in recent years Cloisonne industry appeared womb cloisonne, cloisonne silver tire, and Cloisonne enamel painting combining cloisonne, cloisonne mechanism, imitation Japanese cloisonne silver crystal blue, and combine a variety of Cloisonne. Especially multi-technology combined with cloisonne particularly prominent. This is a kind of cloisonne as the main body, and then combined with ivory, jade carving, wood carving, lacquer ware and silk inlay and other processes, due to the variety of unique combination of technology, materials set off each other, plus a lot of whole body and inlaid stones, so that works more novelty, exquisitely carved, whole body exudes jewels.
- Cloisonne Crafts -
Beijing Cloisonne arts complex, many processes, which combines the technology of bronze and enamel, the tradition of painting and metal chisel carved craft, reflecting the traditions learn from each other between the Chinese traditional craft categories. Cloisonne elegant, patterns of harassment, rich colors, has the characteristics of court art, gives a "strong mellow, glittering" artistic sense, has high artistic value, has participated in important exhibitions at home and abroad, it is also frequently ceremony as a gift foreign guests. However, in recent years, under the impact of the market economy, cloisonne factory or bankruptcy or endangered, highly skilled cloisonne production master and descendant of the few, not further rescue protection, this outstanding art about to decline even lost.
Cloisonne of origin
Cloisonne from the Yuan Dynasty, flourished in the Ming Dynasty, the origin of it, due to lack of existing literature, there is a lack of early and reliable products for dating model year basis, so far inconclusive. Ever known, the earliest recorded literature fetal enamel metal products, only to see the Hongwu twenty-one written by Cao Zhao "ancient to be on the grid." Described in the book "large kiln is food" or "filigree enamel fetal trunk" article. "Great food" is the title of West China Yuan and Song Dynasty in the Arab region. Experts According to historical analysis, about the thirteenth century, "fetal copper filigree enamel" passed by the Arab areas of China. Incoming beginning of the "big food kiln" and "A fat man" and many other popular name. The earliest extant domestic enamel products are the National Palace Museum collection of the late Yuan Dynasty products tricyclic bottle animal ears, hook Lin Ding furnace, Lotus elephant ears furnace.
It is said Jingtai Ming Dynasty Xuande emperor's son, Xuande emphasis on bronze smelting and casting bronze. During childhood Jingtai osmosis, a very detailed understanding and deep addicted, except for the cast refining, the Xuande crest has no ability to then seek to break it another way in color to surprise FIG. Finally there is "cloisonne" of creation. Because color advance to plan the painstakingly-consuming, so after a successful, but also extreme love, no not all Queen Chen ornaments "cloisonne" production, the number of many species can not bend, where the porcelain can be made is no different there. Chenghua period inherited genetic industry, unchanged legacy, still trying to firing, so cloisonne most common artifacts in Jingtai and Chenghua two Koreas. After that experience Hongzhi, Masanori, Longqing four dynasties, though still firing, but all follow conventions, went through the motions, they are not comparable with the Jingtai and Chenghua years in terms of quality. After Wanli, although occasionally fired, not like before setting official factory setting cases deemed Service, so later produced very little. To the Qing Dynasty Emperor Qianlong period, they began firing, and the bewildering variety of good results, although it can not and Jingtai, compared Chenghua period, but later than Hiromasa produced was by no means inferior. At this point, cloisonne distinctive national style has been favored by Westerners, cloisonne craft began as an important export commodity exports. Under the stimulation of foreign trade, in addition to the government-run enamel workshop, private firms and have also set up shop, business cloisonne, as God Lee, born Baohua, Jing Yuan Tang, Tong Zhiyuan and so on. In 1904, Lee made God "Baoding furnace" won the first prize at the Chicago World's Fair, and won the first prize again at the Panama Pacific International Exposition in 1915. Since then, Beijing Cloisonne boosted reputation in the international community, all customers have come to order.
Cloisonne Beijing as the birthplace and main Office was the most important place of origin, Queen prison Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty has enamel workshop for the royal service in Beijing.
Broadly speaking, Ming cloisonne tire is preferably copper, copper plurality of tires, slightly thick body, it is more antique style, the main bronze imitation glaze are used natural mineral materials, deep and vivid color, like red ruby red, green like turquoise. At this time, the pinch thicker wire, a thickness of the plated parts Goldwater. Most of trachoma on the glaze. Paragraph "big Jingtai year" or "Jingtai years," end models, while both models. Cloisonne Qing Ming ratio has been improved, fetal thin, fine filigree, Ming than to bright glaze, and no blisters, various complicated patterns, but tattoo Ming less vivid, jinshui thin plated part, but gold is Pretty.
In time, the overall level of cloisonne less than the previous generation, matrix thin, colorful and have a sense of floating, coarse workmanship. Only the "God Lee", "Dexing as" making cloisonne fine workmanship, good quality. Modeling and more antique bronze, or imitation Qianlong boutique, models, are carved been paid. After 1949, depending on the country to take an active protection, support policies, this ancient art to the rapid recovery and development. Now Cloisonne furnishings and more, do not do it supplies.
Cloisonne main process
Cloisonne production process, both using the traditional techniques of bronze and porcelain firing, but also absorbed the traditional techniques of painting and sculpture, called a master of Chinese traditional crafts. Made handicrafts have let the solemn, splendid and elegant artistic features.
Cloisonne production process is a comprehensive art, is art design, type production (manufactured tires), integration of technology with knowledge of filigree, Blue Point, polished and gold-plated. A product to go through more than a dozen procedures to complete. First a tread made use of copper, followed by craftsmen in the above painting, after then rolled flat thin copper wire, made in accordance with a variety of patterns drawn, pinch, welding, attached to the carcass, and then with a different color enamel glazes material embedded in the pattern, and finally after repeated firing, polished, plated, and other procedures to produce the final product.
After the final rinse water drying process, a gorgeous eye-catching Cloisonne will come to the fore. A good gold-plated carved exquisitely carved hardwood bottom bracket matched with cloisonne, cloisonne show more elegant, dignified and beautiful pretty.
Design: including design, pattern design, color pictures design. Because cloisonne patterns of lines is limited tire type, wire craft workers and glazes, will not lean too close, so designers must not only have a certain knowledge of art and drawing ability, but also familiar with the production process cloisonne, understand the various performance of raw materials, so that when creative ideas, give full consideration to the characteristics of the production process, the product has the beauty and harmony of the whole.
Tire System: cloisonne products handsome in appearance or not, first of all depends on the "system child" process. The tire is made of copper flake qualified FIG press, cut into or cut into various different fan-shaped circular, and beaten with a hammer copper body of various shapes. In a bottle, for example, it consists of three segments connected hammer pourer, belly bottles, molded mounts welding. When the cast tire has Ming, tick tires, tire drilling process, with the development of modern technology, the early portion of the tread is also now using a mechanical turning, pressing, roll, spin, carry out a mechanical braking tire. Master craftsman Zhang Lu after thousands of tests, restore lost a tire cloisonne casting, production of fetal type and then with filigree copper casting type of method, burning the glaze. This feature is Cloisonne, heavy tread type, complex type, in addition to the land portion bluing Jin, the exposed gold surface is generally larger. This usually gilded gold surface with gilt methods, work more glorious and splendid, magnificent.
Filigree and wire: wire method is to pinch clamp the soft, thin flat copper wire having a toughness, a pattern design draft, pinch (breaking) in a variety of patterns, dipped in Baiji Rong paste, i.e., stuck to the copper body to make. Then, after welding, blue and gold-point processes for producing finished. Filigree craft skills clever, skillful author with skill, charm pinch a vivid picture, not easy. After the liberation, filigree art has made great progress. Beijing Cloisonne filigree old artist, have their own strengths, such as Li Qinglu the "Tour shrimp," Shi Wan was "the ancient people," Wang Baocheng of "Chrysanthemum", Lu Yu Gang's "Bo Gu" and "People", which have high artistic level . Arts and Crafts Kim Se-right, is a design would not only make the filigree craftsmen.
Blue Point and welding: good pinch carcass wire, through welding, pickling, flat live, after a positive wire, then step into the blue dot. Method is to use blue gun (a small metal shovel) to grind a thin glaze to fill the gap at the wire work, then good blue dot products, in a high temperature furnace, high temperature Celsius eight Baidu's blow, then glaze you can melt. General cloisonne required fired three times, the least polished of the process to burn two to three times.
Polish: commonly known as "grinding live." This is the entire production process cloisonne most strenuous and tiring one, stab into living, polished, bright on other procedures. The first to use the product Diamond gravel surface portion of the filament above the glaze polished, the filaments emerge, then fire on the bright glaze rubbed off with Huang Shi, black silk, then dip linden charcoal horizontal, vertical regrinding, until the product emits uniform light so far. Now the general use of electric grinding machine to live, save a lot of manpower, but production levels are still requires the use of special-shaped hand-mill alive.
Gold plating: This is the production process Cloisonne last main step, to prevent oxidation of the product, making the product more durable, and more beautiful and the surface of the product coated with a layer of gold. The linked product into the tank through the power gold gold plating, and then taken out after the completion of rinse, and then dry etching with sawdust, cloisonne whole production process is finished and, a cloisonne craft will be born.