Beijing souvenirs: Jade carving crafts
Jade, carved by means jade objects. Jade contains jade, carved from jade synthesizers, counting more than 100 years known as jade or ancient jade. Modern varieties of jade decorations variety of styles, are: the Jade beads, each jade bracelet, each hairpin jade, emerald pendant, jewelry sets, each ring Yu, Phyllostachys jade products, each of the array of belts and other jade, Jade addition, agate, jade aventurite like, also used jade, green gold, liver stone, malachite, Dong Lin Shi, coral, crystal, qUARTZ, wood, etc. jade stone material becomes. The renovation of standard models, there is a single flat bead strings, pagoda string, color string, shaped string with a string like shape. These jewelry jade ornaments through careful coordination with, will give people's lives, the effect of clothing play a perfect match.
China has been the number of years as jade ritual objects and ornaments, especially kings and nobles, also jade as a status symbol, and therefore carry side. As a result, a large number of jade arts will gather in Beijing Chongwenmen Flower Market area, Beijing has become the center of Chinese jade.
Beijing Jade roughly divided into two categories, one piece of living, including jade furnace, Yuping, tea sets, figures, birds and animals, in general reception hall like to put one or two large jade vases, both elegant and valuable. Second, small living, including rings, necklaces, seals, pipes, another needle, and some heart-shaped necklace, quite small, but still very delicate.
- Beijing Jade -
As early as the late Paleolithic ten thousand years ago, Chinese people's ancestors discovered and started using a jade. It is generally believed that in ancient times in the production, the use of stone tools discovered the jade of this mineral. It is more hard rock than the average, so people use it to process other stone products. It is another distinctive color and luster, Bach, endearing, so people slowly use it for decoration, so that was originally based on "Beauty jade stone." In the long life practice in which people come to realize that a part of the "beautiful stone" has a special nature, put them separate from the "stone" out, called "Jade." Jade carving has unique properties, before the metal Seiko invention, jade is an indirect method to polish grinding, i.e., using driven Solutions jade artifacts sand mill to Yu. With the development of productive forces, because the number is not a lot of jade and difficult process, and therefore only a few prominent figure in the group, such as chiefs, priests and wear only be eligible to use this labor-intensive goods, which in turn makes it gradually evolved into ritual, ceremonial vessels or totem. It is in this long slow process of evolution, especially jade from the original is only a stone into a symbol of nature on behalf of power, status, wealth, theocratic.
Beijing Jade's history
Beijing Jade has a long history, as early as the Neolithic "cavemen", to use as a jade ornament of women. After long years, ancient multiply, gradually formed workmanship and elegant jade arts. Jade hard, crystal clear and delicate, colorful. Common materials are white jade, jasper, jade, onyx, Interlocking agate, crystal, amethyst, turquoise, QUARTZ and so on.
Beijing Xing Yuan Dynasty Jade, founder as Qiu. At that time the formation of two different styles of north and south, as the Bank said South-North Tamatsukuri. South jade as Suzhou, Yangzhou as the center, north to Beijing as the center for jade. To the Ming and Qing dynasties, jade is the peak period of development. There have been South jade craftsman to Beijing for the opening of settled, so Beijing jade into the United States south and north as jade, the two sets of long, forming a unique style of Beijing.
Beijing jade art has a long history, profound skills, the amount of material drawn on the production, because of material Shi Yi, Yu Concealer is an important rule of Zhuoyu. Craftsmen use natural shape, color, texture, texture and transparency of jade, create a lot of talent, wit and natural treasures. Jade production process, summarized as "proposed, painted, cut, light" Several big stage. Performance practices are: sculpture in the round, relief, Carved, line carving. Beijing Jade many categories, namely: utensils, figures, flowers, birds, bonsai, jewelry and so on.
Modern famous jade master Beijing have called "The Four jade," the Pan Bingheng, He Rong, Liu Deying, Wang Shusen. Another Ge Jianxun, Wang will, Chen Changhai, Li Bosheng, Lian of other masters. Jade as Beijing's main handicraft products since the 1980's been a new development. It is known as one of "four famous" Beijing traditional crafts. Into the 21st century, because the old heavy burden on enterprises, factors of a shortage of funds and raw materials, skilled workers, aging, brain drain, the more jade industry downturn, with many old craftsmen have died or retired, there has been Houjifaren situation.
the production process characteristics of Beijing jade
Ancient jade techniques, from making stone tools. Cut, polish, cut, grind jade is the process used by the program. Cut, i.e. material solution, jade use solution added solution toothless saw Yu sand, it will be expected to separate; mortar dipped in consultation with a circular saw Shuji; cut, the pattern is carved, drilled with a drill, cones and other tools; mill, is the last process, gourd skin with fine wood, leather dip pearl mortar, to be polished, will be issued creamy jade-like luster. This jade technology, has mastered the vet craftsmen. Today's jade carving techniques, or the use of roughly cut, polish, cut, grind four methods. Qin said Zhuo Yu, Yu Song-person grind, grind Zhuo said today.
Sang Ok: from the piece of rough diamonds, to make a jade, the first is a "Sang Ok" design. "Phase" is both "see", after watching pondering thinking, in order to determine the intrinsic quality of jade, and the pros and cons of appearance, conception and then determine what the theme of the works.
Draw live: it is based on the concept of the image, with pen and ink lines on the jade material, put it vividly draw (draw) out. "Draw live", it is a key part in Zhuoyu process.
Wondering: refers to the specific production of jade. Production of jade jargon called "pondering." Because extremely hard jade, iron disc must be - as a tool thallium, silicon carbide and water as the medium, through the gate chisel, punching, pressing, hook, cis other processes, bit by bit from pondering. It is engraved with the "knife live" completely different. Jade pondering, is a very careful and precise skills, master pondering jade pieces, to achieve "small in the big", "significant weight to light" artistic effect.
Milling: also known as "light", "polished." Rough area with shellac, wood, gourd, copper and thallium sub leather, pondering the jade pieces, milled flat. And by applying some chemical powder such as chromium oxide as dielectric material, revealing that the member Yu smooth jade, crystal and warm nature.
Hook Compaction: Han Dynasty Jade carving famous techniques. Yu described in the literature, it sculptured thin as gossamer as the hair, reverberates flow, with no trace of stagnation. Han Dynasty unearthed jade and fine phase quote, classical offer of these claims are credible.
"Ming made two" through jade: In the mid-Qing Dynasty appear, there are more applications in the Forbidden City in Beijing, Suzhou gardens and other buildings. Ming made through two jade, is on a flat (or slightly convex) jade sheet, both surfaces of the engraved patterns of different layers, the intermediate layers completely through the opening, is connected to a peripheral edge integrally. Ornamentation hollow, positive and negative phase error, set off each other, subtly strange. Difficult, fine workmanship.
Gold Jade wrong: the use of traditional gold wrong technology, crushed into fine lines in the decoration jade production, and then embedded with gold or silver. Jade subject to wear wrong. Commonly known as "inlaid with gold," in fact "the wrong." In ancient China as "carved jade", "literary brilliance" as the finest craftsmanship, according to the Eastern Han Li Yau and three as Chun saying, "wrong Huang Lou" and "Witch" is also a gold of another name, and so we wrong turn It can be called "literary brilliance." The wrong combination of jade is "carved jade" and "literary brilliance," the development of gold is another wrong process. Jade has a gold production in the jade industry in Beijing and Suzhou.
Nephrite law: the jade softened the law. Jade hard and difficult to hard and difficult carving, with a few pieces of wood available water chestnuts into boiling water for one day Yu, then Sanli alum, toad carved at Three Mile coating, Sunburn dry, and then cover, to make up drugs.
Soft crystal method: the quartz crystal soft law. Crystal hard and difficult carving, available carnea cook, cooked view, can be engraved. But only with copper, iron cooking, is not sand. This method nephrite also.