Talk about the traditional Chinese culture in Hong Kong movies
Due to historical reasons, Hong Kong has formed a unique local culture: traditional Chinese culture, as the mother culture, has always been dominant in Hong Kong culture.Western culture has landed in Hong Kong as a strong culture;The lingnan culture, which has recently been less exposed to Confucian orthodoxies and constraints, has been quietly promoted in the cracks between the two cultures.Hong Kong's native culture is actually a composite culture formed by the combination of these three cultures.At the same time, Hong Kong society is pure market economy system.In this unique cultural and economic atmosphere, Hong Kong films are endowed with unique humanistic connotation and production mode.Fundamentally speaking, the impact of traditional Chinese culture on Hong Kong films is the most profound and consistent.Despite the unique production environment, the centuries-old Hong Kong film still has a distinct Chinese cultural context in the intercultural jig.The Hong Kong film has always been the banner of the traditional Chinese traditional culture, which is rich in traditional Chinese heritage.
Before transformation: traditional Chinese culture
Fundamentally, before the mid-1960s, Hong Kong had not entered the period of industrialization, the level of economic development was relatively slow, and social transformation had not yet begun.Hong Kong's local culture during this period is basically for the continuation of traditional central plains culture, Hong Kong movie culture is also an extension of the mainland film culture and shows the culture and central plains culture.The veins of traditional Chinese traditional culture in Hong Kong films are mainly embodied in the Chinese traditional view of human, moral and family values.Unlike in the west, Chinese family values are the most important, and for the sake of family interests and reputation, individuals should suffer humiliation and sacrifice.For the sake of family harmony, the individual must abide by the norms of ren lun and abandon his own interests and happiness, becoming the subject of family obligations.This theme runs through the films of various periods in Hong Kong, especially in the 1950s and 1960s.The cantonese name of "parents" (1955) is typical.The film shows an ugly family of cantonese opera in the plight of the family.At the beginning of the film, Hong Kong's economy was sluggish and the dance was popular, although the comedian had a hard time on the stage, but the audience was limited.The clown was out of work, but for his son to read, he would play the "tiger" on the stage every night for ten dollars.Working so day and night, it is ultimately fatal.His wife kept secret from him and went to live in the neighborhood, until he died.When his son finished his studies, he finally met his dying father and offered to fund his brother's studies. At this point, he would close his eyes.The character is portrayed as a hero who has defended his family under severe economic pressure.During this period, the performance of the more classic family ethics and family film still has a lot of, such as "inch grass heart" (1952) describe a poor family of five, husband and wife, father and daughter are deeply love the family, worry about yourself, don't want to let each other so secretly to toil for this home, paid more than their physical labor, there have a lot of misunderstanding, but in the end one by one, the family more intimate and harmonious in tears.
In the second aspect of the Hong Kong film, the harmonious and unified cultural tradition manifests itself as the moral concept of keeping the help in the celebration of tribulation in the traditional culture.This theme in the 50 most fully expressed in the Hong Kong film, the film showed the underlying people's survival state of deep sympathy and concern, to promote "the countrymen and", "all men are brothers" and other traditional Chinese ethics.The blockbuster cantonese classic card "chunxiao" dangerous (1953) describes a group of underprivileged people live with in a crumbling ruins, confront homeowners' squeeze and unemployment, although finally ruins down in a hurricane, but tenants under the guidance of the driver Liang Wei touching story of solidarity and rebuild their homes.Borrow Liang Wei film of mouth shouted out "one for all, all for one" slogan, most can reflect the spirit, the Liang Wei star ng cho-fan street when taking a taxi, the driver would not to collect fees, fully shows the traditional moral values by Hong Kong people's identity at that time.Other films such as "miss ritual" (1951), "a plate between" (1952), "between water and fire" (1955), "mountain pass" (1956), the wind the ball number 10 (1959) also has promoted the mutual love and mutual assistance between people, their moral values and ethics with left-wing film s mainland, visible group consciousness in Chinese traditional culture and humanity consciousness to the profound influence of the Hong Kong film.
The third aspect is manifested in the traditional concept of female virtue.In the traditional ethics of Chinese ethics, it is the greatest virtue for women to sacrifice individuals for their families.There are films that highlight this traditional virtue throughout Hong Kong.Most of these films by traditional standard model a wife and mother image: modesty, obedient, work hard, hard work and devotion, and one thousand to show their greatest woe suffering process.50 s female Hong Kong films are mostly have such model: when the pinch, "women will only food supplies the elderly, children, her husband, oneself go hungry, and worked day and night to earn income, even keep the family to do singer, dancer, more to calm upset at her husband...If the family path falls, she will always be able to bend over backwards to maintain the home until her husband's prodigal son turns around.Bai yan, a female star of the 1950s and '60s, starred in hundreds of films, often playing such a tough and powerful woman."Therefore, in the concept of Hong Kong people, she is almost the embodiment of a good wife and mother. When it comes to someone's wife, hyun-sook, she will burst out and say, 'she is too white!The charm of traditional morality and values can be seen.
In the long-term development of Chinese traditional culture, it has formed the integrity, courage, justice, courage, perseverance and unyielding national spirit.In the Hong Kong film before the transformation, despite the invasion of foreign cultures, it has carried on such a tradition, carrying forward the Chinese national spirit and celebrating the Chinese national air festival on screen.
First of all, films of all periods in Hong Kong have a positive and positive theme, which often ends in the "evil and evil report, good and good news".For example, the first film in Hong Kong (1913), the film satirizes chuang tzu's wife, who ingratiating herself with her new love when the body is not cold, and she kills herself by shame.The first minister's feature film "rouge" (1925) is adapted from the novel of the same name in "liaozhai zhiyi", which is also a cautionary tale about the good and the good.Despite a wave of yellow and violent propaganda in cantonese in the 1930s, the theme of punishment has not been broken.For example, the heart of iron and bone (1932) shows the rich girl's love for the poor, and urges her father to be poor and poor.The sound of the cuckoo (1932) and the elder brother (1934) is also the subject of good warning."Lying world" (1950), "middle autumn moon" (1951) and other films, such as "lying world" (1950), "Chinese autumn moon" (1951) and other films, made the most of the evil of the rich and inhuman.
Secondly, the theme of good and evil is used in Hong Kong films.Good and evil is a relatively broad concept, which includes loyalty and righteousness, strength and weakness, chivalry, hatred, justice and justice.The theme is more concentrated in action movies.Films including martial arts films, martial arts films and shoot-outs are one of the major films of Hong Kong films, distributed throughout Hong Kong films.These films all have these themes.
In many action films, represented by the fifties and sixties "huang2 fei hong2" series of the old martial arts films, both in troubled times as the background, in the late qing dynasty showed resistance much bullying and punishing the theme of the internal forces of evil.While displaying good and evil, the film still promotes the typical Confucian ethics.Huang2 fei hong2 this image reflects the Confucian wisdom, kernel, brave, loyal, subject to moral character, "huang2 fei hong2" series world is also a Confucian spirits: "for the center with the father, the love for the human world.Wushu is not a means to conquer or fight, but to repair, defend, or to stop the unrest when necessary.But another famous martial arts films directed king hu's film covered with thick atmosphere, the history of Chinese dynasty history of corruption in tragedy, acura, chivalrous spirit of ancient rangers set up the Hong Kong film rare ideal image of heroism.In his films, chivalrous men are patriotic, strong and weak, and the concept of chivalry is the most glorious tradition left over from thousands of years of Chinese history.
In the third area, it is worth mentioning that foreign aggression and acura of the Chinese national gas festival have been reflected.The theme was most pronounced in Hong Kong films during the war.After the "September 18", the Hong Kong filmmaker and the mainland compatriots were equally devoted to the Anti-Japanese War.Hong Kong film one of the pioneers of lai man-wai, "a · 28 incident in 1932, the head of war photography team braved the fire of the Japanese invaders took records Shanghai and documentary" the 19th route army in the Anti-Japanese War history "in the war of resistance.Two years later, the Hong Kong filmmaker took the first anti-japanese themes feature film "the battlefield", the film on a display of the battlefield soldiers misery, reflects the Japanese militarism launched a war of aggression to China the untold sufferings of the people.In 1937 after the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War, the Hong Kong film shot in the film's climax of the war of resistance against Japan, the "grand view" six films such as the company is indispensable, shooting the Anti-Japanese War film "last minute" (1937), showing a group of pain is to the survival environment of college students, national resistance against Japan deeply from all walks of life have a boiling passion, unity, finally all together go to the Anti-Japanese War."The behind-the-scenes staff of this film are all righteous, and all the proceeds from the film are donated to the cause of Anti-Japanese War."From 1937 to 1941, dozens of anti-japanese films were filmed in Hong Kong.The more influential are the little tigers (1941) and the roar of the nation (1941).The former describes the encounter and growth of a peasant in the war of resistance against Japan, and shows the theme of "the uniform of the muzzle of the gun".The latter extolled the justice of the labouring public with a vigorous patriotic fervour, revealing the crimes of the traitors.
In particular, after the fall of Shanghai in 1937, the first time the Shanghai film makers, such as CAI chusheng and Stephen Stuart, moved south to Hong Kong for the first time, promoting the wave of resistance against Japan in the Hong Kong film industry.On the one hand, they made some excellent anti-japanese films.In which the blood baoshan city (1938), according to the Chinese army Yao Ziqing camp to baoshan city in the early years of the war of resistance and moving story writing, shows the national Anti-Japanese War battlefield noble moral integrity and the spirit of not afraid of sacrifice."The guerrilla march" (1938) "celebrates the patriotic spirit of the Anti-Japanese War, and also clarifies the idea of opposing a strong enemy to mobilize the masses to wage guerrilla warfare.""Paradise island" (1939), the white cloud in hometown "(1939), the future wanli (1940) films such as praising the people indomitable fighting spirit, enthusiastic support directly depict the Hong Kong compatriots anti-japanese patriotic action, to expose the ugly face of the invaders, the traitors, spy.On the other hand, the people of "south down" also wrote articles to promote the continuous development of the anti-japanese patriotic movement in the Hong Kong film industry.
In addition to artistic practice, before the transformation of Hong Kong's society, the film's commitment to traditional Chinese culture was also reflected in its artistic propositions and specific behaviors.Lai man-wai at the beginning of the film that follow engaged in revolutionary activities, sun yat-sen embrace his life ideal of reforming society, adhering to the "writing carry doctrine" in traditional, on the one hand, put forward the film should be transforming social traditions, supplementary education and social transformation of the role, rather than blindly pursue entertainment;On the other hand, the slogan of "movie salvation" is put forward, and the original intention of working in film is to make the country prosperous.As founded in 1926, lai man-wai new film company "Shanghai people", put forward on the establishment of declaration, through films about China's inherent "surpasses thought, the purity of morality, it is the custom of" and introduced to European and American, and "intentions towards human, not only in the will, and also between the hinterland."It embodies the idea of promoting the Chinese people with films.
Before the transition, the Hong Kong film people had several "movie cleaning campaigns".In 1935, the overseas Chinese education in Hong Kong would call on the responsible film workers not to shoot backward films, aiming at some films that advocated feudalism, vulgarity and boredom.Three years later, Mr. Lai and others launched a film cleaning campaign against some of the films that render low-level pornography.In the late 1940s, cantonese film makers in Hong Kong also launched a massive "clean campaign" against the conditions of the gods, martial arts and pornography in cantonese.They respectively set up in 1949 in south China filmmaker association and trip to Hong Kong mandarin filmmaker association, issued a "south China movie workers as cantonese clean movement joint statement, said the next to" stop filming in violation of national interest, harm society and poison the heart of the film, not negative, negative people glory be with cantonese piece ".The actions of the Hong Kong film people show both their strong sense of social responsibility and the profound impact of the morality and values of traditional Chinese culture.
The most valuable behavior of Hong Kong film makers is in the period of Hong Kong's occupation.After the fall of Hong Kong in December 1941, many Hong Kong filmmakers showed noble national spirit in the face of Japanese bullying.Part to part of the mainland to participate in the Anti-Japanese War, them travel to nanyang, part of GaiYe seclusion, not a production company cooperate with the enemy, nor a practitioners become traitors, this makes the favorable conditions to establish supported puppet of the Japanese invaders to attempt to use Hong Kong movie plot was thoroughly burst.The famous movie star hou obobo was arrested for refusing to lure the Japanese, insisting on shooting the anti-japanese film, and facing the Japanese butcher knife, he preferred to die, and was brutally killed.In the history of Hong Kong film, this magnificent page shows the lofty patriotism of Hong Kong film people and the status of national air festival in traditional Chinese culture.
After the transformation: under the influence of multiculturalism
In the second half of the 1960s, the society of Hong Kong was greatly changed, the industry was developing rapidly, the economy began to take off, and the society of Hong Kong was transformed from agricultural civilization to industrial civilization.In the cultural complex after the social transformation, the western culture becomes stronger and the geographical factors make lingnan culture more and more important to Hong Kong as a regional culture.The transmutation of culture has made the people of Hong Kong have obvious changes in ideology, values, behavior and taste.The change of cultural environment has also led to the transformation of the thinking and production strategies of Hong Kong films.
After transformation of Hong Kong movie while pay more attention to the entertainment and commercialization, but in the production environment full of commercial atmosphere, the context of Chinese traditional culture has not disappeared, and the Hong Kong filmmaker given for the younger generation audience the connotation of the new era.Such as in family ethics subject matter film, Hong Kong, one of the "new wave" Lord Allen fong's "father and son love" (1981), showed a pushy between the father and the son of a strong rebellious mood conflict, the subjective viewpoint son from the departure of the film, he finally understand the father's good intention, and to resolve contradictions.This shows that in the modern society of Hong Kong, quite a few young people have inherited the tradition of "heavy family and heavy family" in traditional culture left by their parents.Instead of blindly pursuing their own "personality" and not taking care of their responsibilities to the family and society, they are striving to create a peaceful and peaceful living environment for themselves and their loved ones.Ann hui's Shanghai holiday (1991) also shows the communication and understanding between the two generations from a cultural perspective.The film depicts a retired teacher in Shanghai who is under the care of his son, a son and daughter-in-law who works abroad.Despite his grandfather's care, sun, who grew up abroad, still hated him so much, even accusing his motherland of not being able to give him a slap in the face, and sun went away from home.In the process, he experienced the drowning, the rescue and other twists and turns, finally understood grandpa's pains, also felt in the not rich country full of the truth.When sun's holiday leaves his country, he is filled with nostalgia for grandpa and his native land.In addition to continuing the traditional family concept, this kind of performance has added the theme of love and love to the motherland, which has given a new era connotation and cultural connotation to Chinese traditional culture.
With the development of economy, the female image in Hong Kong films is gradually transitioned from the family to the independent, independent professional women.In the 90 s, this kind of film phase across the women's liberation and feminism, return to the attention to female virtues, and join in the contemporary society, the traditional female virtue deeply thinking, strengthen the humanistic connotation.In the 1990s, women 40 (1995) focused on the life situation of middle-aged women in Hong Kong.Film to civilian performance from the point of view of middle-aged women's survival pressure and psychological crisis, "especially has no ability to change the status quo but it is still the vitality of destiny of lean out of the accurate performance, and conveys a middle-aged woman began to feel life will enter old age and obedience."On the other hand, the film reaffirms the virtues of traditional women and ultimately rewards the character's tenacity and devotion.
"Guide" for the good tradition once after the transition of the Hong Kong film, but the 80 s and 90 s Hong Kong screen, this tradition to return again, showed in modern Hong Kong under the influence of multicultural society, the good qualities of the Chinese nation and carry forward.For example, the love story of a composer and a girl with bone cancer is described in the book, "new without love" (1994). The last girl dies and leaves the composer with infinite nostalgia and dismay.Film from the themes, narrative, the role of setting and actors are embodiment of traditional urban romance of many aspects, such as regression, and in the style of pure and fresh and meaningful to express a kind of pure love.
After transformation because of the influence of the multi-cultural, some changes have taken place in the value orientation of Hong Kong action films, such as the sixties and seventies shao-films and Bruce lee's martial arts films the hero isn't the fifties and sixties huang2 fei hong2 self-serious and rescue of the Confucian gentleman, instead is youthful and, modern youth of life of righteous itinerant persons;In the comedy starring Jackie chan kung fu, the traditional ideal of a colour more desalination, personal hero metamorphosis became a naughty boy, but the theme of the film to reward good punishing evil did not break, the hero is still full of detest evil, emprise of getting rid of the east.Mainland audiences are very familiar with Bruce lee's films, and insult Chinese people are very strong and fight it, the theme of the Bruce lee's character always detest evil, to unreasonable and power full of hate, in his blood flowing on long-term discrimination tenaciously defending the oppressed ethnic han Chinese.As in the "fist of fury" (1972), Chen put "Chinese and dogs allowed" plaque splitting broken, it is set in a family business and the hate, and anger, in a moment "movie ends Chen leap needs to confront the bullet camera, apply colours to a drawing the tragedy of a strong atmosphere, is the Chinese culture 'everyone must die, return steps according to historical records the lofty spirit of portraiture".In the fury of the dragon "(1972), tang jeet kune do to defeat foreigner, on the one hand, proves that Chinese kung fu is superior, on the other hand shows in front of a strong enemy, keep the national dignity and never lower the head to the heroism of Chinese.Again as Jackie chan, starring the police, to shape the police image become still represents the image of the rationality of social public servants, their moment in the maintenance of social stability and the interests of the Hong Kong people in Hong Kong, conscientious, regardless of personal safety.Such as "servants" (1984), Lin biao, swayed by personal considerations of the police, "plan A" (1983) and "police story" (1985) the police in the heroism, the exclusion of life and death, permeates the connotation of justice.
After the transformation of other films, such as "the hui comedy" the happy ending in little sympathy, cantonese teenpic, li roughly in the orthodox and strong sense of history and realistic films of the lower people's deep concern and suggest that this period still occupy a strong position of traditional central plains culture, Hong Kong film still convey "writing carry doctrine" on, "and" Oriental art philosophy.
After the transformation, the Hong Kong film makers also maintained their commitment to the traditional Chinese culture in terms of artistic propositions and specific behaviors.In 1994, the Hong Kong film the commercialization of the wave is at low tide, the 13th Hong Kong film awards went to lai man-wai regards "the highest award", suggests that a regression of the contemporary Hong Kong filmmaker movie ideas.Referred to as a theorist "movie for a long time is bad social criticism consciousness, especially the pornographic violence adverse influence on the young audiences, the special commend the father of the Hong Kong film awards lai man-wai, in addition to promoting its pioneering role, also emphasized tohave the film, film as lofty ideal of education mass tool, to stimulate trade thinking about the social significance of Hong Kong films, and reflect on the current production line."
Today's Hong Kong filmmakers have never abandoned the moral mission that traditional central plains culture has given them.In the 1990s, they held a number of performances to relieve victims of natural disasters such as floods and disasters.During the period of SARS, they worked with their mainland counterparts to carry out their performances many times, encouraging their compatriots in the three countries to get through the difficulties mentally and materially.All these reflect the continuation and inheritance of Chinese traditional cultural morality and values in the new generation of Hong Kong filmmakers.
With the development of The Times, Hong Kong society has entered an era of increasing pluralism.The era of pluralism needs diverse films, but in a diversified pattern, the Chinese traditional culture can be maintained in order to maintain its own advantages and vitality, so as not to be swallowed up by Hollywood films.Hong Kong film can in the Hollywood movie empire remains under the invasion of edge, largely due to the extension of the Chinese traditional culture, the return of Hong Kong for this laid the foundation of better, now the CEPA agreement and other policies and for Hong Kong and the mainland culture and film close communication between provides better security, believe that the future of Hong Kong films will be more widely to carry forward the spirit of the Chinese nation, more inheritance of Chinese traditional culture.